The “top of the line” or “pro” versions of cameras…

1959 – 1973
1971 – 1980 
… 1971 – NIC, Nikon Integrated Coating, on lenses (first lens: Nikkor Auto 35mm f1.4)
… 1977 – AI, automatic aperture indexing)
1980 – 1988
1988 – 1997
1996 – 2004 
… 2000 – VR introduced (with AF VR Zoom Nikkor 80-400mm f/4.5-5.6D ED)
2004 – present  

Add to these camera bodies the Kodak and Fuji cameras that used the F-mount,
some others also did; Ricoh Singlex, Zenit, Phenix and maybe some more.

At least the most recent Nikons (F3 and later) take at least lenses made from 1977 and on.

The same goes for all the digital Nikon cameras starting with the D1 (, 2.7MP),
which was introduced June 15, 1999 (i.e. as the F5 and F100 was present).

Lens and camera combinations that are compatible;
There is more than 60 million NIKKOR lenses in the world (source)
More info on lenses

More on digital SLR’s: